Film de la semaine: Outfoxed

16 05 2008


Outfoxed
envoyé par esprit2verite



Introduction aux agences d’assurance-crédit à l’exportation: Création de risque, génération de dette et garantie de destruction de l’environnement.

13 12 2007

EDCanada

repris de ECA-Watch:

« Il existait une vive inquiétude parmi les membres de la Task Force face au manque de normes environmentales appliquées aux activités de développement des agences bilatérales de prêts commerciaux et de crédit. A quelques exceptions notables près, les exigences concernant l’évaluation environnementale imposées aux agences d’aide bilatérales des membres du Comité d’aide au développement ne s’appliquent pas aux branches commerciales du financement gouvernemental bilatéral. Pratiquement chaque membre a cité des exemples où le manque de planification environnementale adéquate dans les projets financés par de telles organisations avait crée des problèmes écologiques et sociaux significatifs. L’avis était que les dommages environmentaux résultant de telles entreprises étaient beaucoup plus importants que les dommages crées par un manque de cohérence parmi les bailleurs de fonds bilatéraux. » (OECD Development Assistance Task Force Report : Coherence in Environmental Assessment Practical Guidance on Environmental Assessment for Development Co-operation Projects, May 1996).

L’impact des Assureurs-Crédit sur le développement et l’environnement…

Alors que nombre de citoyens connaissent les institutions globales célèbres telles que l’Organization Mondiale du Commerce, peu connaissent les organisations plus obscures, mais d’influence égale, connues sous le nom d’agences d’assurance-crédit à l’exportation (Assureurs-Crédit). Les Assureurs-Crédit des grands pays industrialisés pourraient maintenant être considérés comme la catégorie d’institutions publiques la plus importante au monde de la finance internationale. Depuis quelques années les Assureurs-Crédit des pays appartenant à l’Organisation pour la Coopération et le Développment Economique (OCDE) tels que les Banques d’import-export des Etats-Unis et du Japon, Hermes guarantee en Allemagne, la COFACE en France et SACE en Italie ont subventionné presque 10% du commerce mondial, approchant une valeur annuelle de 500 milliards de dollars en exports soutenus par des prêts, des garanties et des assurances gouvernementaux. Les prêts à plus long terme et les garanties des Assureurs-Crédit de l’OCDE ont été multipliés par quatre entre 1988 et 1996, de 26 milliards de dollars à 105 milliards de dollars par an. Plus de la moitié de ces prêts et garanties, au moins 50 milliards de dollars par an, a été affectée à des projets d’infrastructure importants dans des pays en voie de développement, plus que la totalité des fonds investis par toutes les agences d’aide bilatérale et multilatérale. Un nombre significatif de ces projets tels que les barrages et les installation de production d’énergie de grande envergure, les activités minières, les routes dans des forêts vierges tropicales, les oléoducs, les installations chimiques et industrielles, les projets de sylviculture et de plantation pour n’en parler que de quelques-uns uns, ont des impacts sociaux et environnementaux très graves. Pour la plupart les Assureurs-Crédit n’ont aucun mandat de développement ni d’obligations en ce sens, cependant ils constituent la plus grande partie de la dette dans les pays en voie de développement, soit en 1996 quelque 24% de la dette totale et 56% de la dette auprès des agences officielles.

Les Assureurs-Crédit manquent de politiques et de standards communs de base dans les domaines environnementaux et sociaux… Comme l’indique les conclusions du rapport de OCDE cité ci-dessus, il existe un contraste frappant entre les politiques des Assureurs-Crédit –orientées presque exclusivement vers la promotion des exportations ­– et celles des agences d’aide au développement et des banques multilatérales de développement, telles que le Groupe de la banque mondiale. Tandis que les agences d’aide bilatérale et les banques multilatérales de développement ont adopté des procédures environmentales et sociales détaillées, la plupart des Assureurs-Crédit et des agences publiques d’assurance ont peu, et souvent aucunes, normes dans ces domaines. Par conséquent, les mêmes pays qui ont approuvé des politiques environnementales et sociales pour leurs agences d’aide et pour le Groupe de la banque mondiale, les subvertissent à travers leurs agences d’assureurance-crédit.

La création de risque dans une course vers le fond…Les Assureurs-Crédit se font une concurrence acharnée, et sont rapides à soutenir des projets que d’autres banques de développement et même d’autres Assureurs-Crédit ont refusé pour des raisons environmentales ou sociales. Ceci mène à ‘une course vers le fond’ qui encourage l’absence ou l’abaissement des normes. L’exemple le plus connu est celui du barrage chinois des Trois Gorges, où en 1996, les Assureurs-Crédit allemand, suisse et canadien se sont fait la course pour financer un projet que la Banque mondiale et la Banque américaine d’import-export avaient refusé de soutenir à cause de problèmes environnementaux. Actuellement une opposition croissante en Chine appelle à la réduction et même à l’arrêt de ce projet gigantesque dont les coûts de construction dépassent les plusieurs milliards de dollars et mènera au transfert forcé de 1,8 million de personnes.

Le G8 appelle à l’adoption de normes environnementales communes… Depuis quelques années, des ONGs environnementales, des parlementaires progressifs et quelques gouvernements ont commencé à demander que tous les Assureurs-Crédit adoptent des politiques environnementales et sociales communes. En mai 1999 les ministres de l‘OCDE ont demandé que les Assureurs-Crédit continuent « à renforcer des approches environnementales communes » et rendent compte du progrès achevé lors de la prochaine réunion du Conseil des Ministres au printemps 2000. Le Communiqué du G8 de 1999 est allé beaucoup plus loin, déclarant que «nous travaillerons au sein de l’OCDE vers des directives environnmentales communes pour les agences de crédit à l’export. Nous espérons compléter ce travail pour la réunion du G8 de 2001. »

Mais les Assureurs-Crédit refusent d’entreprendre des actions significatives…Les Assureurs-Crédit de l’OCDE se sont réunis à Paris du 24 au 25 février 2000, en session spéciale sur l’environnement. Elles devaient essayer de trouver un accord au sujet de leurs engagements pour répondre aux exigences des ministres du G8 et de l’OCDE. Dans l’absence d’un contrôle et d’une pression internationale suffisante, cependant, les Assureurs-Crédit semblent chercher des moyens d’éviter des modifications sérieuses de leurs approches. Jusque-là ils n’ont pu se mettre d’accord que sur un échange d’information environnementale au sujet de projets particulièrement désastreux et dans lesquels plusieurs Assureurs-Crédit sont impliqués. Par ailleurs, certains tentent de suggérer que le simple échange d’information et un intérêt symbolique pour les questions environnementales au niveau le plus superficiel constitue « des principes directeurs environnementaux communs ».

ACE en Afrique

Pour en savoir plus sur les ACE en Afrique, cliquez ici.



Léopold II: Génocide au Congo

5 12 2007


genocide_congo
Uploaded by caidland
Il est à noter qu’Arte peut se permettre ce film car cela fait une centaine d’années que Léopold II est mort mais le génocide au Congo ne s’est pas arrêté avec la mort de Léopold II. Enviant à la Belgique les richesses du Congo, le Canada, les États-Unis, la France, le Royaume Uni, l’Allemagne, la Chine, Israël, le Liban, l’Australie etc. se sont mis de la partie et participent actuellement au génocide lucratif en RDC [voir 1 2 3 4] (en fait c’est la communauté internationale toute entière qui viole le Congo), génocide qui de par son envergure éclipse même l’Holocauste de la Seconde Guerre et le Génocide rwandais: depuis 1998 seulement, entre 3 millions et 5 millions de personnes sont mortes des conflits au Congo, plus de 17 000 enfants soldats ont été recrutés et le viole des femmes est devenu systématique. Voici un extrait de congopanorama à ce sujet:

Rape has become a defining characteristic of the five-year war in the DRC, according to Anneke Van Woudenberg, the Congo specialist for Human Rights Watch. So, too, has mutilation of the victims.

« Last year, I was stunned when a 30-year-old woman in North Kivu had her lips and ears cut off and eyes gouged out after she was raped, so she couldn’t identify or testify against her attackers. Now, we are seeing more and more such cases, » she says.

As the troops of coccupation from Rwanda and Uganda constantly sought new ways to terrorize, their barbarity became more frenzied.

I, too, was sickened by what I saw and heard. In three decades of covering war, I had never before come across the cases described to me by Congolese doctors, such as gang-rape victims having their labia pierced and then padlocked.

« They usually die of massive infection, » I was told.

Based on personal testimonies collected by Human Rights Watch, it is estimated that as many as 30 percent of rape victims are sexually tortured and mutilated during the assaults, usually with spears, machetes, sticks or gun barrels thrust into their vaginas.

Increasingly, the trigger is being pulled. About 40 percent of rape victims, usually the younger ones, aged 8 to 19, are abducted and forced to become sex slaves.

« The country is in an utter state of lawlessness; it’s complete anarchy, » says Woudenberg. « In this culture of impunity, people know they can get away with anything. Every armed group is equally culpable. »

In the Congo, rape is a cheaper weapon of war than bullets. Experts estimate that some 60 percent of all combatants in the DRC are infected with HIV/AIDS. As women rarely have access to expensive antiretroviral drugs, sexual assaults all too often become automatic death sentences.

Médecins Sans Frontières operates five health clinics offering antiretrovirals in the conflict zone of northeastern DRC, but many women don’t know about the drugs and cannot travel safely to the centers. Moreover, according to Helen O’Neill, a nurse who set up MSF’s sexual-violence treatment program, such drugs must be taken within forty-eight to seventy-two hours of the rape to prevent infection.

If a woman has been exposed to the virus, the treatment is 80 percent effective. But in the Congo, rape victims who are not captive sex slaves must walk for days or weeks, often with massive injuries, and risk new capture by roving rebel bands, before reaching assistance.



Le nouveau réseau international de Hakluyt

2 12 2007

Repris de Intelligence Online:

Le nouveau réseau international de Hakluyt

Le cabinet de renseignement Hakluyt s’est longtemps reposé sur un réseau d’ex-PDG britanniques. Ces dernières années, la firme s’est efforcée d’élargir son conseil consultatif.

Doté depuis l’an dernier d’un nouveau directeur en la personne de Keith Craig (IOL nº517), le très discret cabinet d’intelligence économique londonien Hakluyt n’a pas abandonné le mode de fonctionnement développé par le fondateur de la firme, Christopher James. Depuis sa création en 1995, Hakluyt est doté d’un conseil consultatif composé d’anciens PDG et de diplomates à la retraite, qui servent à la fois de cautions et d’apporteurs d’affaires. Ce conseil a longtemps été constitué de Britanniques et d’Américains, parmi lesquels l’ex-président de Ford, Alex Trotman ; l’ancien Chairman de Royal Dutch/Shell, Peter Holmes ; et l’ex-PDG de Vodafone, Christopher Gent. Ces dernières années, la composition de cette structure a évolué vers un modèle international. La moitié des conseillers sont désormais allemands, japonais et australiens. Ils disposent en outre de nombreuses entrées dans le secteur bancaire et dans les fédérations d’entreprises de leurs pays respectifs.

Hakluyt

(Cliquez pour agrandir)

Notes:

  • Hambros Bank a été acheté par la Société Générale en 1998.
  • Selon Wikipedia (qui cite Saving the Sun : A Wall Street Gamble to Rescue Japan from Its Trillion-Dollar Meltdown): Shinsei était auparavant la «Banque du Japon de Crédit à Long Terme» qui avait un monopole gouvernemental sur les obligations à long-terme. Suite à l’éclatement de la bulle spéculative japonaise en 1989, cette banque était surchargée de mauvaises dettes, elle fût donc nationalisée et décotée de la bourse de Tokyo en 1998. Après des tentatives infructueuse de fusionner la banque avec d’autres banques japonaises, la banque fût vendue au fond d’investissement par capitaux propres New LTCB Partners C.V. de la compagnie d’investissement par capitaux propres Ripplewood Holdings LLC (cette dernière est dirigée et a été fondée par Tim Collins, ami personnel de Bill Clinton, qui travailla entre autres pour la controversée Booz Allen Hamilton [1 2 3 4] et pour Lazard Frères et qui est membre de la commission Trilatérale) en mars de 2000 pour 121 milliards de yens. C’est la première fois dans l’histoire du Japon qu’une banque japonaise passe sous contrôle étranger. Après la vente la banque fût renommée Shinsei (voulant dire «Nouvellement Née») . Insérée dans le contrat de vente était une «close de garantie de défauts» qui permettait à Shinsei de réclamer que le gouvernement achète toute dette dont la valeur avait chuté en deçà de 20% de sa valeur comptable. Shinsei fût lancée en juin 2000 avec une nouvelle équipe de gestionnaires dont plusieurs membres travaillaient préalablement dans des institutions bancaires étrangères implantées au Japon comme par exemple le pdg qui était chez Morgan Stanley et le directeur des systèmes d’information qui travaillait chez Citi. Shinsei garda le code SWIFT (LTCBJPJT) de la «Banque du Japon de Crédit à Long Terme».Shinsei utilisa la close de garantie de défauts pour se débarrasser des pires dettes du portefeuille de la banque (aux dépends du gouvernement japonais) suite à quoi plusieurs compagnies, telles Sogo et Dai-Ichi Hotel, qui avaient comme principal banque Shinei, durent déclarer faillite. Ceci souleva l’indignation générale au Japon et les politiciens critiquèrent tout spécialement Goldman Sachs, qui avait agit de conseiller auprès du gouvernement lors de la vente de la banque, de ne pas avoir avertit le gouvernement des risque inhérents à la close de garantie.Quatre ans après se vente à Ripplewood, Shinsei fût introduite en bourse pour la rondelette somme de 230 milliards de yens (ce qui à l’époque équivalait 2,8 milliards de dollars canadiens ou 1,7 milliards d’euro), ce qui signifie un profit de plus de 100 milliards de yens en quatre ans pour Ripplewood et consorts. Ces profits furent réalisés à grand prix pour le Japon par contre car en plus de tous les emplois perdus par la fermeture des compagnies telles Sogo, le gouvernement japonais dû débourser entre 4000 et 5000 milliards de yen pour reprendre les mauvaises dettes de Shinsei à cause de la clause de garantie de défauts et pire encore, les profits réalisés étaient à l’abri de taxes et impôts du gouvernement japonais de par l’utilisation d’un partenariat d’investissement étranger.


IEDM: Idées pour enrichir le boss

19 11 2007



Rothschild: juge et partie dans le pillage du Congo

13 11 2007

repris de Congolite:

Révision des contrats miniers : les Ong congolaises accusent la Compagnie Benjamin De Rothschild d’être juge et partie

(image: logo de la Compagnie Benjamin de Rothschild)

12 juillet 2007 – Un vent favorable a fait parvenir à Congolité un mémorandum des Ong membres du Forum de la Société Civile Congolaise (FSC), dans lequel ces organisations non-gouvernementales dénoncent des conflits d’intérêts dans le processus de la revisitation des contrats miniers initiée par le gouvernement. Ces Ong accusent, entre autres, la Compagnie Benjamin De Rothschild d’être, à la fois, juge et partie. En effet, selon les Ong, « Il se dégage de l’analyse des conflits d’intérêts que la Compagnie Benjamin De Rothschild ne devrait pas en ce temps offrir ses services comme expert au gouvernement de la RDC. » Car, ces Ong ont établi un lien direct entre la Banque de Rothschild (une filiale de la Compagnie Benjamin De Rothschild) et les entreprises suivantes : Adastra (ancienne AMF); Anglo American; American Diamond Buyers [appartient aux même gens que Adastra]; Barrack Gold; De Beers; Kingamyambo Musonoi Tailings (KMT) [filière d’Adastra]; Kinross Gold [filière du Groupe Forrest]; Nikanor [depuis fusionnée avec Katanga Mining, filière du groupe Forrest]; Quantum Minerals; Phelps Dodge [appartient à Freeport]; Umicore (anciennement Union Minière). Ces entreprises en consultance financière à la Compagnie Benjamin de Rothschild « sont celles-là même qui ont le gros des contrats miniers en RDC qui nécessitent une révision en priorité dans tous les domaines : cuivre, cobalt, diamant et or. De ce fait, les Ong membres du FSC recommandent que la Compagnie de Rothschild se récuse et que l’Etat congolais décline son expertise. Par conséquent, les Ong demandent à la Compagnie de Rothschild de se récuser comme Expert. Le document dénonce aussi d’autres conflits d’intérêts. Les Ong attirent « l’attention sur le fait que les contrats les plus importants ont été signés sous l’autorité des membres du gouvernement de transition dont certains sont encore aux affaires publiques à ce jour ou représentant des entreprises privées ». « La plupart des contrats ont été signés à l’avantage d’entreprises d’origine des pays membres de l’ancien Comité international d’accompagnement de la transition (Ciat) qui n’avaient pas intégré la question de bonne gouvernance dans son mandat », rapporte le mémorandum.

MEMORANDUM DES ONG DE LA RDC ADRESSE AU MINISTRE DES MINES EN RAPPORT AVEC LE PROCESSUS DE REVISION DES CONTRATS MINIERS

1. Introduction

o Les organisations non gouvernementales (ONG) membres du Forum de la Société Civile Congolaise (FSC) vous transmettent par le présent Mémo les points saillants qui nécessitent l’attention de la commission gouvernementale de « revisitation » des contrats miniers et des informations relatives aux conflits d’intérêts dans les dossiers sous étude.

o Vous trouverez ci-dessous des préoccupations majeures, notamment celles relatives aux renseignements faisant état des conflits d’intérêts des experts internationaux et leurs liens avec des banques privées qui agissent en bourse comme consultant en techniques financières au nom de certaines entreprises minières mises en cause.

2. Justification de la révision des contrats, selon les ONG membres du Forum

o La Résolution 1803 du Conseil de Sécurité de l’Organisation des Nations Unies (ONU) pose le principe de la souveraineté permanente des peuples sur leurs ressources qui servent l’intérêt communautaire. Ce principe revient également dans la Charte économique des droits et des responsabilités des Etats de 1974 qui se réfère à l’ordre économique international.

o La résolution 1756 du Conseil de Sécurité de l’ONU renouvelant le mandat de la MONUC établit le lien direct entre l’exploitation illégale des ressources naturelles par les entreprises multinationales, l’élite congolaise, l’insécurité ainsi que le trafic d’armes en RDC. Faits établis depuis 2002 par le panel d’experts de l’ONU qui rattache les intérêts des entreprises privées à la guerre déclenchée en RDC depuis 1996.

o Le 15 mai 2007, le Conseil de Sécurité des Nations Unies a proposé au gouvernement de la RDC, comme solution à la consolidation de la paix dans le pays, alternative appuyée par la communauté internationale, l’extension de l’autorité de l’Etat sur tout le territoire; l’établissement du contrôle effectif sur les ressources naturelles; et l’amélioration de la gestion des ressources de la RDC.

o Le 11 juin 2007, le Ministre des mines a procédé au lancement officiel des travaux de la commission de revisitation des contrats miniers signés en grande partie en période de guerre, conformément a son arrêté n°2745/cab.min/mines/01/ du 20 avril 2007 portant mise sur pied de la commission ministérielle chargée de la « revisitation » des contrats miniers. L’esprit et la lettre de cette décision rejoignent la recommandation du Secrétaire Général des Nations Unies qui, au mois de févier 2007, proposait la communion d’efforts des secteurs public et privé pour promouvoir la sécurité, la bonne gouvernance, assurer la transparence dans les affaires et dresser un code de bonne conduite du secteur privé en RDC.

o Se référant au droit congolais, les ONG estiment que bien des contrats sont contraires aux lois et dispositions constitutionnelles sur les droits individuels collectifs. A titre d’exemple, l’article 3 du Code minier dispose que « les sites et concessions minières sont la propriété exclusive et inaliénable de l’Etat congolais », et l’article 9 de la Constitution de la RDC du 18 février 2006 rappelle la souveraineté permanente de l’Etat sur ses ressources tel qu’énoncé par la résolution 1803 du Conseil de Sécurité des Nations Unies ci-haut invoquée.

3. Préoccupations

o Les ONG membres du FSC sont préoccupées par les limites de compétence dans le chef des personnes qui ont négocié les contrats miniers pour le compte des entreprises minières congolaises. Il s’avère que la plupart des contrats en cause ont porté sur des gisements connus et documentés, mais qui n’ont pas respecté la procédure d’appel d’offre.

o Les organes des entreprises publiques appelés à les engager ont souvent outrepassé leurs pouvoirs, soit par manque d’autorisation, soit par manque d’approbation du ministère de tutelle.

o Les contrats signés ont généralement fait l’objet de beaucoup d’avenants qui les ont dénaturés par la suite.

o Concernant les partenaires privés, les ONG ont de même relevé que certains ont vendu ou cédé des titres miniers obtenus sous contrat d’amodiation. Cette pratique n’est ni autorisée ni conforme au code minier congolais et ni à celui de bonne conduite généralement accepté par les entreprises minières et bourses internationales.

o Du point de vue économique et technique, il n’y a pas eu au préalable de valorisation réelle des concessions ou gisements faisant l’objet des contrats.

o La plupart de partenaires sans moyens financiers propres n’ont pas tenu compte de la clause sociale pour les travailleurs et les populations congolaises. Ils se sont battus pour avoir la part du lion consacrant des graves inégalités au détriment de l’Etat et des entreprises congolais, privant ainsi la population de son droit de jouir des richesses de son pays, comme l’énonce les articles 53 et suivants de la Constitution de la RDC.

o Les royalties payées, toutes choses restant égales par ailleurs, ne sont pas identiques pour les partenaires. Elles sont calculées tantôt sur des recettes nettes tantôt sur des recettes brutes.

o Par conséquent, depuis la signature des dits contrats, le secteur minier n’a pas contribué à l’amélioration du PIB, des revenus à l’exportation et des recettes budgétaires de l’Etat. En sus, les entreprises minières n’ont réussi ni à relancer leurs activités, ni à réduire les dettes. Elles ont perdu la capacité de refaire leurs fonds propres et de réhabiliter l’outil de production.

4. Préoccupations spécifiques aux conflits d’intérêts

o Les ONG voudraient attirer l’attention sur le fait que les contrats les plus importants ont été signés sous l’autorité des membres du gouvernement de transition dont certains sont encore aux affaires publiques à ce jour ou représentant des entreprises privées.

o La plupart des contrats ont été signés à l’avantage d’entreprises d’origine des pays membres de l’ancien Comité International d’Accompagnement de la Transition (CIAT) qui n’avaient pas intégré la question de bonne gouvernance dans son mandat.

o En ce moment de la perspective de la révision, les ONG constatent que le gouvernement a choisi trois institutions d’experts internationaux : la Fondation OSISA, le Centre Carter et la Compagnie Benjamin de Rothschild. Des informations reçues des différentes sources et celles tirées de leurs sites respectifs, la Fondation OSISA travaille dans les pays d’Afrique australe sur des questions liées a la démocratie et Droits humains, le Centre Carter travaille pour la promotion de la paix, la lutte contre les maladies et la construction de l’espoir des peuples du monde. Cependant, la Compagnie Benjamin de Rothschild S.A. (CTBR) créée en 1989 à Genève, fait partie du Groupe LCF Rothschild appartenant à la branche Genevoise de la famille Rothschild. Elle accompagne ses clients dans la définition, la quantification et la gestion de leurs risques financiers : Taux d’intérêt (actif ou passif), Devises (flux de trésorerie et exposition du bilan), Matières Premières, Actions et autres activités financières.

o De diverses sources, les ONG du FSC ont appris que la Compagnie Benjamin de Rothschild est très liées à la banque NM Rothschild qui est parmi les grandes banques du monde. NM Rothschild et la Compagnie Benjamin Rothschild sont membres de Rothschild Holdings avec des intérêts dans Rothschild Group and Rothschild Inc. Toutes ces institutions sont propriétés de la famille Rothschild. En plus, Benjamin de Rothschild est membre du conseil d’Administration de la Rothschild Continuation Holdings (RCH).

o La banque N.M. Rothschild, a été très active aux cotés des entreprises minières en RDC a titre de consultant financier. De même qu’en 1999, la Zimbabwe’s Merchant Bank of Central Africa Limited était enregistrée comme membre du groupe dans le rapport annuel.

o Les ONG ont établi un lien direct entre la Banque de Rothschild et les entreprises suivantes : Adastra (ancienne AMF); Anglo American; American Diamond Buyers; Barrack Gold; De Beers; Kingamyambo Musonoi Tailings (KMT); Kinross Gold; Nikanor; Quantum Minerals; Phelps Dodge; Umicore (anciennement Union Minière).

Adastra/AMF/Kingamyambo/Quantum :

Adastra (anciennement AMF) est une entreprise canadienne. Elle avait recouru aux services de NM Rothschild comme consultant financier en 2006. NM Rothschild avait représentée Adastra dans les opérations d’achat/vente avec Quantum Minerals. Adastra était vendu éventuellement a 245 millions de dollars américains en cash et stock. Adastra était gérée par M. Jean-Raymond Boulle, qui devint plus tard associe dans Anglo American co-propriétaire de American Diamond Buyers avec Joseph Martin. AMF était aussi affilié à Barrack Gold avec M. Boulle.

Anglo-American :

Anglo American est reconnue comme étant la troisième grande entreprise minière opérationnelle dans le monde. Deux de ses subsidiaires opèrent en RDC, il s’agit d’Anglo Gold Ashanti et De Beers. Rothschild Inc. sert de conseiller financier a la compagnie Mondi, subsidiaire d’Anglo American. Mais aussi, l’un des hauts responsables d’Anglo American, M. Russell Edey, est Directeur adjoint de la banque NM Rothschild Corporate Finance. David de Rothschild, chef de NM Rothschild était le conseiller d’Anglo American dans l’achat de Kumba Resources, une grande entreprise minière sud Africaine.

Barrick Gold :

Barrick Gold est une entreprise minière canadienne. M. Nathaniel Rothschild est membre du Conseil d’Administration de Barrick Gold et Directeur de “Rothschild Foundation” appartenant à la famille De Rothschild.

DeBeers :

La famille Rothschild, depuis des longues années, possède toujours des grandes parts sociales dans DeBeers. Lord Rothschild était l’un des membres fondateurs de DeBeers Consolidated Mining Company en 1873.

Kinross Gold :

Rothschild Inc. était le conseiller stratégique de Kinross Gold. Kinross Forrest, l’une des entreprises accusées de forte corruption, avait fait une joint venture entre Kinross Gold <http://www.business-humanrights.org/Categories/Individualcompanies/K/KinrossGold> , George Forrest <http://www.business-humanrights.org/Categories/Individualcompanies/G/GeorgeForrest> et Tain Holdings. Elle a été acquise complètement par Katanga Mining <http://www.business-humanrights.org/Categories/Individualcompanies/K/KatangaMining> , anciennement Balloch, en juin 2006. George Forrest <http://www.business-humanrights.org/Categories/Individualcompanies/G/GeorgeForrest> est l’actionnaire majoritaire dans Katanga Mining.

Nikanor :

NM Rothschild est le conseiller financier de Nikanor, une entreprise minière opérationnelle en RDC. Nikanor possède les droits miniers sur les sites de Kananga et Tilwezembe et gère le Concentrateur de Kolwezi. La même entreprise cherche à réhabiliter KOV et construire une raffinerie de cuivre et cobalt. Nikanor est listée à la bourse de Londres depuis le 17 juillet 2006 avec un lever de fond de 434 millions de dollars américains.

Phelps Dodge :

Rothschild Inc. est aussi le conseiller financier de Phelps Dodge, une entreprise américaine, plus spécifiquement sur le crédit de financement du projet Tenke Fungurume Mining.

Umicore :

Umicore est une entreprise minière belge qui forme un holding d’entreprises de cuivre qui s’appellerait Cumerio, comprenant celles qui sont déjà opérationnelle en RDC. NM Rothschild branche d’Australie est désignée comme cabinet de conseil financier dans les transactions.

5. La fédération des entreprises du Congo (Fec) devrait donner sa position

o La FEC, partenaire de l’Etat congolais, devrait dire un mot sur le processus de révision des contrats, alors que l’opinion nationale se fait une mauvaise impression des entreprises minières présentées à ce jour comme étant dans la logique d’entretien de l’insécurité pour mieux exploiter des ressources naturelles du pays.

o Les investisseurs étrangers, les entrepreneurs congolais membres de la FEC autant que les organisations de la société civile, devraient contribuer à la recherche de la solution pour la bonne gouvernance des richesses de l’Etat dans la transparence, suivant l’appel de l’ONU fait aux acteurs non étatiques.

o A l’instar de l’église catholique qui a dénoncé les mauvaises conditions d’exploitation minière au Katanga et au Kasaï, ainsi que l’insécurité entretenue dans les provinces de l’Est de la RDC; la FEC devrait passer à la population congolaise un message clair afin que le soutien de la communauté internationale ait un sens.

6. Conclusion et recommandations

Aux entreprises multinationales et la FEC

o Les ONG membres du FSC recommandent que les entreprises multinationales collaborent totalement avec la commission gouvernementale à rétablir les entreprises publiques, l’Etat et la population congolais dans leurs droits.

Au gouvernement de la RDC

o Que le gouvernement manifeste la détermination à en finir avec le pillage orchestré par l’élite congolaise en son sein, en prenant des mesures coercitives, conformément à la loi pénale en rapport avec le détournement des biens publics.

o Au regard des limites de compétence professionnelle des personnes qui négociaient les contrats miniers pour le compte des entreprises minières congolaises en outrepassant leurs pouvoirs, les ONG membres du FSC recommandent une mise à niveau du personnel et la sanction correspondante.

o Que les titres miniers obtenus sous contrat d’amodiation et cédés aux tiers, soient récupérés conformément aux lois congolaises en vigueur.

o Que les concessions ou gisements ayant fait l’objet des contrats en ignorant leurs valeurs réelles, soient réévaluées, afin de faciliter la renégociation des parts des entreprises et l’Etat congolais.

o Que les contrats dont les partenaires n’ont pas présenté leurs moyens financiers propres soient révisés, afin de permettre aux entreprises et l’Etat congolais de rentrer dans leurs droits respectifs.

o Que les contrats consacrant des graves inégalités au détriment de l’Etat et des entreprises congolais au profit des entreprises privées soient rééquilibrés ou annulés.

o Que les royalties payées soient identiques pour tous les partenaires, toutes choses restant égales par ailleurs.

A la Compagnie Benjamin de Rothschild et le gouvernement congolais

o Il se dégage de l’analyse des conflits d’intérêts que la Compagnie Benjamin De Rothschild ne devrait pas en ce temps offrir ses services comme expert au gouvernement de la RDC. Car, les entreprises citées ci-haut en consultance financière à la Compagnie Benjamin de Rothschild sont celles-là même qui ont le gros des contrats miniers en RDC qui nécessitent une révision en priorité dans tous les domaines : cuivre, cobalt, diamant et or. De ce fait, les Ong membres du FSC recommandent que la Compagnie de Rothschild se récuse et que l’Etat congolais décline son expertise.

Aux ambassades accréditées à Kinshasa

o Il s’avère de même que les entreprises bénéficiaires de la plus part des contrats miniers soient canadiennes, belges, américaines, anglaises, chinoises et sud africaines, les pays qui avaient le plus d’influence au sein de l’ancien CIAT et qui continuent à jouer un rôle clé dans la vie politique interne de la RDC. Les ONG membres du FSC recommandent que les chancelleries en poste à Kinshasa soient justes et jouent un rôle plus transparent vis-à-vis du gouvernement congolais.

A la MONUC

L’ONU reconnaît le lien direct entre l’exploitation illégale des ressources naturelles par les entreprises multinationales et l’élite congolaise, et l’insécurité ainsi que le trafic d’armes en RDC. D’autant qu’elle reconnaît que la situation est entretenue dans le but de contrôler les richesses naturelles de la RDC. Les ONG membres du FSC lui recommandent de redoubler ses efforts, suivant son mandat, afin de mettre fin à la maffia internationale liée à l’exploitation illégale des richesses; d’aider l’Etat congolais à étendre son autorité sur tout le territoire; rétablir le contrôle effectif sur les ressources naturelles et d’améliorer la gestion des dites ressources.



Behind the War on the Congo

12 11 2007

repris de ocnus.net et Zmagazine:

(Photo: Uraguayan special forces MONUC hunting FDLR in Kahuzi Beiga National Park under Operation Falcon Sweep.)

Behind the Numbers

Untold Suffering in the Congo

By Keith Harmon Snow & David Barouski, CCA 26/10/06
Oct 30, 2006, 11:28

The British medical journal Lancet recently took greater notice of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) than all western media outlets combined. A group of physicians reported that about 4 million people have died since the “official” outbreak of the Congolese war in 1998 (1). The BBC reported the war in Congo has claimed more lives than any armed conflict since World War II (2). However, experts working in the Congo, and Congolese survivors, count over 10 million dead since war began in 1996—not 1998—with the U.S.-backed invasion to overthrow Zaire’s President Joseph Mobutu. While the western press quantifies African deaths all the time, no statistic can quantify the suffering of the Congolese.

Some people are aware that war in the Congo is driven by the desire to extract raw materials, including diamonds, gold, columbium tantalite (coltan), niobium, cobalt, copper, uranium and petroleum. Mining in the Congo by western companies proceeds at an unprecedented rate, and
it is reported that some $6 million in raw cobalt alone—an element of superalloys essential for nuclear, chemical, aerospace and defense industries—exits DRC daily. Any analysis of the geopolitics in the Congo requires an understanding of the organized crime perpetrated through multi-national businesses, in order to understand the reasons why the Congolese people have suffered a virtually unending war since 1996.

Some people have lauded great progress in the exposure of illegal mining in DRC, particularly by the group Human Rights Watch (HRW), whose 2005 report “The Curse of Gold” exposed Ugandan officials and multi-national corporations smuggling gold through local rebel militias. The cited rebel groups were the Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI) and the People’s Armed Forces of Congo (FAPC). The western companies targeted by HRW were Anglo-Ashanti Gold, a company headquartered in South Africa, and Metalor, a Swedish firm. The HRW report failed to mention that Anglo-Ashanti is partnered with Anglo-American, owned by the Oppenheimer family and partnered with Canada-based Barrick Gold described below (3). London-based Anglo-American Plc. owns a 45% share in DeBeers, another Oppenheimer company that is infamous for its near monopoly of the international diamond industry (4). Sir Mark Moody-Stuart, a director of Anglo-American, is a director of Royal Dutch/Shell and a member of U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan’s Advisory Board (5). The report also suppressed the most damning evidence discovered by HRW researchers—that Anglo-Ashanti sent its top lawyers into eastern DRC to aid rebel militia leaders arrested there.

Several multi-national mining companies have rarely if ever been mentioned in any human rights report. One is Barrick Gold, who operates in the town of Watsa, northwest of the town of Bunia, located in the most violent corner of the Congo. The Ugandan People’s Defense Force (UPDF) controlled the mines intermittently during the war. Officials in Bunia claim that Barrick executives flew into the region, with UPDF and RPF (Rwanda Patriotic Front) escorts, to survey and inspect their mining interests (6).

George H.W. Bush served as a paid advisor for Barrick Gold. Barrick directors include: Brian Mulroney, former PM of Canada; Edward Neys, former U.S. ambassador to Canada and chairman of the private PR firm Burston-Marsteller; former U.S. Senator Howard Baker; J. Trevor Eyton, a member of the Canadian Senate; and Vernon Jordan, one of Bill Clinton’s lawyers (7).

(Photo: Rape has been used as a systematic means of instilling terror in the
people all over DRC. This girl (20) fled Eastern DRC and crossed the
country on foot to find some refuge in Western DRC.)

Barrick Gold is one of the client companies of Andrew Young’s Goodworks International lobbying firm. Andrew Young is the former Mayor of Atlanta, and a key organizer of the U.S.-Uganda Friendship Council. Young was chosen by President Clinton to chair the Southern Africa Enterprise Development Fund in October 1994. Goodworks’ clients—or business partners in some cases—include Coke, Chevron-Texaco, Monsanto, and the governments of Angola and Nigeria (note weapons transfers from Nigeria cited below). Young is a director of Cox Communications and Archers Daniels Midland—the “supermarket to the world” and National Public Radio sponsor whose directors include Brian Mulroney (Barrick) and G. Allen Andreas, a member of the European Advisory Board of The Carlyle Group.

Barrick Gold’s mining partners have included Adastra Mining—formerly named America Mineral Fields (AMFI, AMX, other names), formerly based in Hope, Arkansas, Bill Clinton’s hometown. Adastra had close ties with Lazare Kaplan International Inc., the largest diamond brokerage firm in the U.S., whose president, Maurice Tempelsman, has been an advisor on African Affairs to the U.S. Government and has been the U.S. Honorary Consul General of the Congo since 1977 (8).

Maurice Tempelsman accompanied Bill Clinton during his African tour in 1998, and he sails with the Clintons off Martha’s Vineyard. He serves on the International Advisory Council of the American Stock Exchange, and is a director of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, a
”scientific” front for his offshore diamond mining—raking the seabed into oblivion.

Adastra also purchased a diamond concession on the Congolese-Angolan border from the Belgian mercenary firm International Defense and Security (1998), and currently has cobalt and copper concessions in Congo’s Katanga (Shaba) province (9). Adastra is a member of the Corporate Council on Africa, along with Goodworks, Halliburton, Chevron-Texaco, Northrop Grumman, GE, Boeing, Raytheon, Bechtel and SAIC—the latter two being secretive intelligence and defense entities involved in classified and supra-governmental “black” projects.

In April 1997, Jean-Ramon Boulle, a co-founder of Adastra (then AMFI), received a $1 billion dollar deal for mines in the Congo at Kolwezi (cobalt) and Kipushi (zinc) from Laurent Kabila’s Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Zaire (ADFL) before they were even officially in power. The ADFL were even allowed to use Boulle’s private jet (10). Meanwhile, directors of Adastra are also former directors of Anglo-American (11). Other Clinton-connected founders of Adastra include Michael McMurrough and Robert Friedland—both involved in shady, criminal, offshore businesses in Indonesia, Africa, Burma and the Americas (12).

Barrick sub-contracts to Caleb International, who has also partnered with Adastra in the past. Caleb is run by Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni’s half-brother Salim Saleh, the former acting General of the UPDF. When Uganda withdrew from the Congo in 2002 following a so-called “peace” agreement, Saleh began training paramilitary groups to act as Ugandan proxies to sustain the flow of minerals into Uganda (13).

Salim Saleh is a shareholder in Catalyst Co. of Canada, who has a 100% interest in Uganda’s Kaabong gold fields (14). He is a part owner of Saracen, a private military company created by the mercenaries-for-hire firm Executive Outcomes (15). The U.N. Panel of Experts on Illegal Exploitation of Congo’s Mineral Resources recommended Salim Saleh be put on a travel ban and have his assets frozen, but nothing was done.

Recent interventions by the armed U.N. peacekeeping mission in the Congo (MONUC) have concentrated on disarming or eliminating the Forces for the Democratic Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), a rebel group that opposes Rwanda, and the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), a rebel group that opposes Uganda. (Note that the Rwanda military has partnered with its erstwhile “enemies”—the FDLR—when necessary to secure resource plunder while Uganda has its own pattern of complicity with its “rebel” enemies. Rebel alliances are to perpetually shifting.) The removal of these rebel groups will effectively clear the eastern Congo for large–scale multi-national mining. The Mai-Mai militia, whose stated goal is “to protect Congo from Rwandan and Ugandan invaders,” has committed documented human rights abuses, yet they appear to be off the agenda for MONUC. The Mai-Mai operate in northern Katanga (Shaba) province and in the Kivus.

Katanga’s militias and racketeering are connected to criminal networks of businessmen, including Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe, Billy Rautenbach, John Bredenkamp, and Marc Rich. U.S. diamond magnate Maurice Tempelsman has profited from Katanga concessions since the Kennedy era. Lawrence Devlin, the old CIA station chief of Lubumbashi under Eisenhower, maintained Tempelsman’s criminal rackets with direct ties to Zaire’s former President Mobutu, and was subsequently employed by Tempelsman (16).

The Forrest Group has the longest history of exploitation in the Congo, gaining its first mining concessions before the Congo declared independence from the Belgians. The group, which includes the Ohio-based OM Group, has numerous concessions in Katanga (Shaba). Chairman George Forrest is the former chairman of the Congo’s state-owned mining firm GECAMINES, and owner of the New Lachaussee weapons manufacturing company.

Coltan ore is widely used in the aerospace and electronics industries for capacitors, superconductors and transistors after it is refined to tantalum. The U.S. is entirely dependant on foreign sources for tantalum, an enabling technology for capacitors essential to aerospace weaponry and every pager, cell phone, computer, VCR, CD player, P.D.A. and TV. U.S. import records show a dramatic jump of purchases from Rwanda and Uganda during the time they were smuggling tantalum and cobalt out of the Congo.

Sony dramatically increased their importation of coltan following the release of their Playstation 2, while Compaq, Microsoft, Dell, Ericsson, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Nokia, Intel, Lucent, and Motorola are also large-scale consumers (17). Sony’s current Executive Vice-President and General Counsel Nicole Seligman was a former legal adviser for Bill Clinton through the D.C. firm Williams and Connelly, LLP, whose clients included Bill Clinton and Oliver North (18). Sony Executive Vice-President and Chief Financial Officer Robert Wiesenthal is a former banker with First Boston, a supporter of Refugees International’s “humanitarian” relief efforts at Rwandan refugee camps in Eastern Congo, just before the fall of Mobutu in 1995; Wiesenthal was also financial adviser to Cox Communications, OM Group, Time Warner and The New York Times (19).

(Photo: FDLR « genocidaires » — children with guns — in eastern DRC.)

Walter Kansteiner, the son of a coltan trader in Chicago, is the Assistant Secretary of State for Africa and former member of the Dept. of Defense Task Force on Strategic Minerals. Kansteiner’s speech at The Forum for International Policy in October of 1996 advocated partitioning the Congo (then Zaire) into smaller states based on ethnic lineage (20). Ironically, while the speech was given, Laurent Kabila and his ADFL were beginning their march to overthrow Mobutu with the aid of Rwanda, Uganda, and the U.S. (21). Kansteiner is a trustee of the Africa Wildlife Foundation—another euphemistic front for resource acquisition in Congo.

Bechtel, a U.S. aerospace & construction company, provided satellite maps of reconnaissance photos of Mobutu’s troops for the ADFL invasion of Congo in 1996; they also created infrared maps of the Congo’s mineral deposits (22). The Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF), led by Paul Kagame, the current Rwandan President graduate of the U.S. Army officers school at Fort Leavenworth, used Bechtel’s NASA maps to locate Rwandan Hutu civilians that fled the cataclysm in Rwanda in 1994. An estimated 800,000 refugees were hunted down and killed in the Congo’s forests (23). Bechtel’s friends in high places include former Secretary of State George Shultz (Board of Directors), former Secretary of Defense Casper Weinberger (Bechtel Counsel) and retired U.S.M.C. general Jack Sheehan (Senior Vice President), who is also a member of the Defense Policy Board at the Pentagon (24). Riley P. Bechtel is on the Board of J.P. Morgan (25). Bechtel’s Nexant Company is the prime contractor on the Uganda-Kenya pipeline project, believed to ultimately facilitate petroleum transport out of the Semliki Basin of Lake Albert.

The U.N. Panel of Experts named New England-based Cabot Co. for conducting unethical business practices (26). Cabot is one of the largest tantalum processors in the world. The current Deputy Director of the U.S. Treasury, Samuel Bodman, was CEO and chairman of the board for Cabot from 1997-2001 (27). Current Director John H. McArthur is a Senior Advisor to Paul Wolfowitz at the World Bank (28).

Private Military Contractors (PMCs) are also big business in Africa. Brown & Root, a subsidiary of Halliburton, helped build a military base near Cyangugu, Rwanda just next to the Congo-Rwandan border. ”Officially,” Brown and Root was there to clear land mines, but instead housed mercenaries from Military Professional Resources Inc. (MPRI) who trained the RPF and Laurent Kabila’s ADFL for invasion of the Congo in 1996, and the Rwandan army’s re-invasion in 1998, after
Laurent Kabila threw out the Rwandans, Ugandans, Bechtel and the IMF (29). The French intelligence service reported that U.S. Special Forces and mercenaries from MPRI participated in the murder of Rwandan Hutu refugees on the Oso River near Goma in 1996 and even claims to have turned over the bodies of two American soldiers killed in combat near Goma (30). The circumstances surrounding the unofficial recovery of these two U.S. soldiers remain very mysterious (31).

MPRI is based in Arlington, Virginia and is staffed and run by 36 retired U.S. generals. It is contracted by the Pentagon to fulfill the African Crisis Responsive Initiative (ACRI). This program includes the Ugandan military, and it supplied military training in guerrilla warfare to Ugandan officers at Fort Bragg, North Carolina in July 1996. During the invasion of the Congo in 1998, Ugandan soldiers were found with ACRI equipment while Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International have implicated Ugandan battalions trained by ACRI in rapes, murders, extortion, and beatings of Ugandan civilians (32).

Executive Outcomes founder Tony Buckingham has established other Private Military Companies that operate around Africa. Buckingham’s Heritage Oil & Gas works closely with his PMC Sandline International to manipulate the petroleum options around Lake Albert, and is believed to have signed concession deals with warring armies and governments on both sides of the Uganda-Congo border. Branch Energy is another Buckingham affiliated company operating in the Great Lakes region.

Investigations of illegal weapons sales to Rwanda last year, in violation of the U.N. arms embargo on the region, have been hampered by the Rwandan government’s refusal to provide a list of serial numbers of the 5000 AK-47s delivered there. The shipping country, Bulgaria, also refused to provide serial numbers, and would only confirm that the weapons were sold legally to a non-embargo country, Nigeria, en route to Rwanda and DRC. The governments of Uganda, Congo, South Africa and Equatorial Guinea—a major U.S. petroleum protectorate—are equally culpable in supporting the clandestine arms sales to the region (33).

Weapons shipments arriving by boat from Tanzania, and the Government of Tanzania’s role in supporting war in DRC, are never questioned. This may have something to do with Barrick Gold’s mining licenses in Tanzania’s Masaai territories. Aircraft flying between Tanzania, DRC, and from Kenya, are allowed to do so without proper documentation, record-keeping or customs oversight.

Another shady “untouchable” arms dealer operating behind the scenes in the region is an Indian-American named Mr. Kotecha. Kotecha’s interests in South Kivu are substantial, and he is openly fingered as dealing in money laundering, arms, coltan and diamonds. After the first U.S.-sponsored invasion of the Congo in 1996, Kotecha is known to have repeatedly boasted of being the “United States Consulate” in South Kivu. Kotecha holds a U.S. passport and owns a mansion in California.

When an outspoken local defender of human rights working for a small NGO (Pascal Kabungulu of Heritiers de la Justice) was assassinated during the summer of 2005 in Bukavu, the alleged killers, including a local Congolese military commander, were identified but MONUC and the international “community” took no action. The killing revolved around his role in exposing the Congolese commanders’ involvement in contraband smuggling (which continues today).

A U.N. Panel of Experts in a forthcoming report will challenge many airlines and companies for undertaking illicit flights (illegal, secret, unregistered or falsely registered) into and out of DRC. One of many notable companies apparently connected to Victor Bout’s arms trafficking networks is Simax, an Oregon-based company using an address in Sierra Leone. However, the U.N. Panel of Experts has once again ignored certain western agencies—with histories of illicit activities—whose flights remain equally surreptitious and unaccountable. At the top of the list is the International Rescue Committee (IRC)—directors include Henry Kissinger —whose flights in and out of Congo, and internal flights to and from isolated airports in eastern DRC, are completely unmonitored by MONUC arms embargo inspectors. In Bukavu, for example, all light aircraft are subject to MONUC arms embargo inspections, but IRC flights are not within the MONUC mandate. As one MONUC Military Observer admitted, “The IRC should be subject to the same standards as everyone else; otherwise we have to assume they are shipping weapons, because they do not let us confirm they are not.”

Similarly, while the U.N. Panel of Experts have investigated and reported on certain illegal criminal networks and activities in Congo, they never attend to the top-level deals brokered behind closed doors by executives from Adastra, Anglo-American, the companies of Sweden’s Adolph Lundin (a close friend of George H.W. Bush), who have control of mining concessions in Lubumbashi, Kolwezi and Mbuji Mayi areas in the Katanga (Shaba) and Kasai provinces. U.S.-based Phelps Dodge is partnered in Katanga copper/cobalt mining projects with Lundin’s Tenke Mining. Phelps Dodge director Douglas C. Yearly is also a director of Lockheed Martin, and the World Wildlife Fund—partnered with USAID and CARE in “conservation”—read: acquisition—projects all over Congo while CARE’s “humanitarian” agenda is also funded by Lockheed Martin.

“Conservation” interests provide the vanguard of western penetration in Central Africa: USAID, WWF, AWF, and Conservation International lead the charge. Evidence from USAID cases all over Congo quickly contradicts all fanfare about USAID bringing “sustainable” or “community development” projects. Most notable are the Central Africa Region Partnership for the Environment (CARPE) and Congo Basin Forest Partnership (CBFP), two programs pressing hidden military, intelligence and economic agendas. Notably, National Geographic is involved in furthering the mythologies of conservation, democracy, community development, or the lip service paid to respecting and supporting indigenous people.

Some people have suggested the reason that there isn’t greater awareness and equitable intervention in the Congo is because “we simply don’t know what to do” to remedy the situation. However, it is fairly clear what needs to be done, the West is just unwilling to do it because of powerful economic and geopolitical reasons.

1. U.S. Military Training programs must have an oversight committee and total transparency. Western governments must end their hypocritical stance and ensure they don’t train any “rebel” or ”dissident” groups, especially if they are against a democratically elected government (provided the elections weren’t fraudulent), even if the elected government isn’t politically aligned with the western ideology and/or economic ideals. To do otherwise would refute claims that the west is intervening to “spread democracy.”

2. In parallel with number 1, a committee must be set up to ensure the same doesn’t occur for the private military companies. As multinational corporations, these firms aren’t subject to obey laws of warfare as an established country’s armed forces are supposed to. The U.N. must pass resolutions mandating the World Court and International Criminal Court (ICC) to prosecute such corporations. Lastly, when such companies are exposed for conducting illegal activities, such as aiding coups or trafficking human slaves, the corporations who conduct these activities must be blacklisted from receiving government contracts, domestic or international, and the guilty individuals must be prosecuted (34).

3. In the arms arena, more substantial efforts must be created to intercept and prosecute “embargo busters,” illegal brokers, and arms sellers. Furthermore, those selling, transporting, brokering, funding, or wiring arms transactions for weapons specifically intended for children should receive the harshest of the penalties (certain ”small weapons” are modified to reduce their weight to make it easier for a child to carry). Firms that participate in arms shipments, transport and/or the movement of the flow of the money generated from these sales with countries, people or organizations that are embargoed or act against national or international law should be held accountable for their crimes. Assets can be frozen, travel bans imposed, and all government and economic business ties with such firms severed. These penalties must also have an assurance of enforcement.

4. Debt relief is essential, but ways must be found to protect IMF and World Bank loans from being used for military expenditures. The motivations of World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz are suspect. Dr. Wolfowitz is a former Deputy Secretary of Defense under George W. Bush, a former ambassador to Indonesia under Ronald Reagan, a PNAC member, and dual citizen in Israel. Likewise, the World Bank and IMF must shift their policy of privatization as a stipulation for loan approval in order to stimulate business growth within the state instead of having the business sector growth be almost entirely from multinational corporations. The World Bank and IMF must also provide debt relief to the counties that need it most according to economic indicators. Some countries receiving debt relief, like Uganda and Rwanda, are among the biggest spenders of their loans in the military sector (35). It must be ensured that a majority of spending occurs on infrastructure and public services, and that this does not benefit the standard set of “embedded” western corporations. It must also be ensured the loan money is used in areas that need development the most. For example, in Uganda, the loan money Museveni has used for development has focused in the south in Kampala, the capital, and in Mbarra, his hometown. Meanwhile, the Acholi people, who always vote against Museveni’s party in the polls, are ignored and the situation in the Lira, Gulu, and Kitgum districts continues to deteriorate. In addition, individual countries must examine the aid they give to countries that spend a high percentage of capital on military, as well as commit human rights abuses. Lastly, debt relief doesn’t harm banks that gave the loans in the first place and collect on some of the interest rates, not to mention the American businesses that make profit on the privatized businesses as part of the loan deal. The debt is transferred to the taxpayers, so transparency is needed to insure that costs are also incurred by the firms granting the loans (if they want credit for their “humanitarian” debt relief).

5. Western countries must end the impunity for those responsible for looting minerals from Congo. Firms that purchase smuggled minerals, and/or purchase concessions from illegitimate rebel groups must be prosecuted. The World Court recently made a start by convicting Uganda and fining the government, but Rwanda, Burundi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe remain unaccountable for their direct pirating, as are the Western firms that purchased the minerals, and Western individuals supporting them. (The Kimberly Process, established with the support of academic and intelligence experts at Harvard University, is a perfect example of the gatekeepers policing their own gates: the huge, entrenched, but secretive interests like the Oppenheimer/DeBeers and Maurice Tempelsman owned companies are legitimized as dealers of “clean” diamonds; while the other, far less connected competitors and challengers of the status quo, including Congolese children sneaking into mines and being shot for “stealing” the diamonds off their own starving families’ former lands, are demonized as dealers of “blood” diamonds.)

6. The World Court and International Criminal Court must hold all military and civilian leaders—African, U.S., European—that are guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity accountable for their actions. The West must not be allowed to shield criminals from prosecution by virtue of their economic and political alliances with Western governments. Governments that harbor these criminals should be subject to prosecution. Economic sanctions may not be proper, as poor nations generally suffer severe civilian casualties as a result; specific involved individuals in government and the military must be held accountable.

7. “Peacekeeping” forces, in particular MONUC, must be examined to ensure that the mission is being conducted with the interests of promoting stability in the country. As illustrated, elements of MONUC have used the mission as a cover to further the agenda of the West and its corporate sponsors under the banner of “peacekeeping,” causing the death of civilians in the process: those responsible should be tried and prosecuted. It must also be ensured that the investigations don’t stop at individual soldiers or brigades committing crimes, but to examine the chain of command and their allegiances to uncover the motivations behind MONUC operations. There have been reports of MONUC troops looting ivory, gold, and animal skins in National Parks. Villagers say that they have seen murders occur right in front of MONUC soldiers and they didn’t act to prevent the killings (36). MONUC soldiers have raped Congolese women (37). When pro-Rwandan rebel leaders Laurent Nkunda and Jules Mutibusi, both war criminals wanted by the U.N., took over Bukavu by force in May 2004, MONUC provided them with weapons and vehicles. Nkunda himself has stated the head of MONUC, William Swing, personally gave him a telephone to use during the raid. (38)

8. The international media is completely silent on virtually every major issue of significance with respect to war in DRC—and the international and criminal networks behind it. Misinformation about Africa prevails due to a concerted effort by the mainstream media to blackout the truth. A boycott of key publications is imperative, and must include the most offensive: Boston Globe, Washington Post, Newsweek, Time, US News & World Report, USA Today, New York Times, the New Yorker (Conde Nast Publications), Harper’s, Atlantic Monthly (highly subsidized by Lockheed Martin and Northrup Grumman) and, especially, National Geographic.

9. The fog of war needs to be cleared away from so-called ”humanitarian” and “human rights” programs, organizations and individuals currently aligned with the Western corporate enterprise. Notables in this category include: Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, CARE, USAID, Norwegian People’s Aid, International Crises Group, International Rescue Committee, Refugees International, the Genocide Intervention Fund, and many U.N. bodies, but especially UNHCR. Most of these agencies appear to exist merely to perpetuate their own survival. Doctors Without Borders also deserves scrutiny for their recent actions in DRC.

10. The peace and justice community remains unaccountable for its failure to take any significant actions to mitigate war in Congo and expose the true reasons behind it. A first step should be open up the spaces to alternative voices currently excluded by major social justice media venues. Second is to declare a total boycott on diamonds and gold, and an organized campaign to protest and economically castigate diamond stores where Lazare diamonds are sold. A third action is the commitment of meaningful funds—both from individuals and from organizations—to support the vibrant grass roots organizations and individuals working for human rights, women’s health, disarmament, education, food security, rainforest and environmental defense in Congo. Fourth, people need to break through their fear (inculcated by the western media) of taking action to help people in the Congo: there is no reason—except the unacceptable—that westerners cannot establish a “Witness for Peace” program situated in the Congo.

11. Rights groups with missions pertinent to Congo’s need must expand their missions to include Congo. Rape is endemic in the Congo: a source of psychological and physical trauma, it contributes to the spread of HIV, Ebola and other sexually transmitted diseases. Survivors often give birth to HIV positive children with no prospects for medical or financial help. This has lead to an insurmountable need for aid to care for the orphans. Mothers of children conceived of rape are often disowned by their village and families. Western feminist and women’s rights activists and organizations must get involved and provide resources for the victims of rape in Congo. Those responsible for rapes must be tried and punished as per the law if guilty. Indeed, evidence from rape cases in rural DRC shows that sexual violence is significantly reduced simply by holding military officers accountable for their troops’ actions, but this is not happening.

12. MONUC’s Radio Okapi is the lifeline of news in DRC today, but programming is largely comprised of U.N. programming. The United Nations needs to be pressured to open up the Radio Okapi network, eliminate the “fluff” pieces, and diversify and deepen its programming and reportage. As a simple example of how things could easily be improved in DRC, programs that sensitize the public o the issue of rape, and sensitize the military to the punishment for it, could easily be implemented; such programming is never considered.

13. The transitional government in Congo is comprised of military leaders and government officials who must be held accountable for their crimes. Like the individuals, organizations, corporations and governments that have supported them, all are responsible for crimes against humanity. The current profiteering in DRC is enabled by these key players, who hold the highest levels of the DRC government, and whose crimes remain hidden by the western press. The transitional government must not be allowed to appoint war criminals to cabinet or parliamentary positions, as well as local governor positions in the provinces.


References

(1) “Mortality in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: A Nationwide
Survey.” Benjamin Coghlan, Richard J. Brennan, Pascal Ngoy, David
Dofara, Brad Otto, Mark Clements, and Tony Steward. The Lancet, 7
Jan. 2006. Number 367 pp. 44-51

(2) “Thousands’ dying in DR Congo war,” BBC News, 6, Jan. 2006:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4586832.stm .

(3) “Depopulation & Perception Management Part 2: Central Africa,”
keith harmon snow. Pioneer Valley VOICE, Feb. 2001:
http://www.allthingspass.com/uploads/html-32Depop&PercepMan.htm ;”Congo: Capitalist Mineral Lust Fuels Bloodshed,” Direct Action:http://www.directa.force9.co.uk/back%20issues/DA%2028/regulars3_1.html
.

(4) “The Lost World War,” Erik Vilwar, Corporation Watch Newsletter,
Issue 13, March-April 2003:
http://www.corporatewatch.org.uk/newsletter/issue13

(5) “Depopulation As Policy, or, How the Despair and Death of Millions
of African People is Daily Determined by the Lifestyle of Ordinary
Americans, in Small Town USA, With Nary a Word of Truth In the US
Press, If Anything At All, And Why Most of Us Know Nothing About It,
And Do Nothing To Stop It When We Do Know,” keith harmon snow, 2003: http://www.allthingspass.com/uploads/html-52Depopulation%20As%20Policy.htm
.

(6) Private interview, keith harmon snow, Bunia, 2005.

(7) “Central Africa: Hidden Agendas and the Western Press,” Pioneer
Valley Voice, keith harmon snow: http://www.audarya-fellowship.com/showflat/cat/WorldNews/48471/0/collapsed/5/o/1

(8) “Genocide and Covert Operations In Africa 1993-1999,” United
States One Hundred Seventh Congress. Subcommittee on International Operations and Human Rights. First Session. 17 May 2001. comp. Centre for Research on Globalization.
http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/MAD111A.html .

(9) Ibid.

(10) “Stolen Goods: Coltan and Conflict in the Democratic Republic of
the Congo,” Dena Montague, SAIS Review, vol. XXII no. 1
(Winter-Spring 2002); “Congo: Capitalist Mineral Lust Fuels
Bloodshed,” Direct Action:
http://www.directa.force9.co.uk/back%20issues/DA%2028/regulars3_1.html; “Congo: The Western Heart of Darkness,” Asad Ismi, The Canadian
Centre for Policy Alternatives Monitor, October 2001.

(11) “Depopulation & Perception Management Part 2: Central Africa,”
keith harmon snow, Pioneer Valley VOICE, Feb. 2001:
http://www.allthingspass.com/uploads/html-32Depop&PercepMan.htm .

(12) “Proxy Wars in Central Africa: Profits, Propaganda, and Luxury
Goods for the White World—Pacification, Rape, and Slavery for the
Blacks,” keith harmon snow, World War 3 Report, Issue No. 100, 19 July 2004: http://ww3report.com/proxy.html .

(13) “Named and Shamed,” Ruud Leeuw: http://www.ruudleeuw.com/vbout17.htm .

(14) “Uganda, Sanctions, and Congo-K: Who is Who in Uganda Mining,”
Africa Analysis, 5 June 2001:
http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/congo/2001/0606uga.htm .

(15) “Corporate Soldiers: The U.S. Government Privatizes Force,” Daniel
Burton and Wayne Madsen:
http://www.totse.com/en/politics/us_military/162741.html .

(16) David Gibbs, “The Political Economy of Third World
Interventions,” University of Arizona Press; and Wayne Madsen,
”Genocide and Covert Operations in Africa, 1993-1999,” Mellen Press,
1999.

(17) “The Lost World War,” Erik Vilwar, Corporation Watch Newsletter,
Issue 13, March-April 2003:
http://www.corporatewatch.org.uk/newsletter/issue13 .

(18) “Sony Corporation of America: Executive Biographies,” Jan. 2006.
http://www.sony.com.SCA/

(19) “Proxy Wars in Central Africa: Profits, Propaganda, and Luxury
Goods for the White World – Pacification, Rape, and Slavery for the
Blacks,” keith harmon snow, World War 3 Report, Issue No. 100, 19 Jul. 2004: http://ww3report.com/proxy.html .

(20) “Genocide and Covert Operations In Africa, 1993-1999,” United
States One Hundred Seventh Congress, Subcommittee on International
Operations and Human Rights, First Session, 17 May 2001, comp. Centre
for Research on Globalization:
http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/MAD111A.html .

(21) “The U.S. (Under)mining Job of Africa,” :
http://cryptome.org/us-africa.wm.htm .

(22) “Stolen Goods: Coltan and Conflict in the Democratic Republic of
the Congo,” Dena Montague, SAIS Review, Vol. XXII, No. 1,
(Winter-Spring 2002).

(23) “A Continent for the Taking: The Tragedy and Hope of Africa,”
Howard French, 12 April 2005, Vintage, New York, NY.

(24) “The Exception to the Rulers: Exposing Oily Polititians, War
Profiteers, and the Media That Love Them,” Amy Goodman, David Goodman,
2004, Hyperion Press, New York, NY.

(25) See: “Friends in High Places: The Bechtel Story.”

(26) “Stolen Goods: Coltan and Conflict in the Democratic Republic of
the Congo,” Dena Montague, SAIS Review, Vol. XXII, No. 1,
(Winter-Spring 2002); Named and Shamed, Ruud Leeuw:
http://www.ruudleeuw.com/vbout17.htm .

(27) “Rwanda’s Secret War: U.S.-Backed Destabilization of Central
Africa,” keith harmon snow, 12 December 2004:
http://traprockpeace.org/keith_snow_rwanda.html .

(28) “Proxy Wars in Central Africa: Profits, Propaganda, and Luxury
Goods for the White World – Pacification, Rape, and Slavery for the
Blacks,” keith harmon snow, World War 3 Report, Issue No. 100, 19 Jul. 2004: http://ww3report.com/proxy.html .

(29) “The U.S. (Under)mining Job of Africa,”
http://cryptome.org/us-africa.wm.htm .

(30) “Genocide and Covert Operations in Africa, 1993-1999,” United
States One Hundred Seventh Congress. Subcommittee on International Operations and Human Rights. First Session. 17 May 2001. comp. Centre for Research on Globalization.
http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/MAD111A.html .

(31) Private interview, keith harmon snow, eastern DRC, July 2005.

(32) “Corporate Soldiers: The U.S. Government Privatizes Force,” Daniel Burton and Wayne Madsen:
http://www.totse.com/en/politics/us_military/162741.html .

(33) Confidential report, received, February 2006.

(34) “The Controversial Commando,” Pratap Chatterjee, 14 Jun. 2004:
http://www.guerrillanews.com/human_rights/doc4644.html ;
”CSC/DynCorp.” Corporation Watch:
http://www.corpwatch.org/print_article.php?list=type&type=18 ;
”Crossing the Rubicon,” Michael Ruppert, 2004, New Society
Publishers, Gabriola Island, BC, Canada: p. 79-80.

(35) “The Use of Rwanda’s External Debt (1990-1994): The
Responsibility of Donors and Creditors,” Michel Chossudovsky, Pierre
Galand, 30 March 2004:
http://www.globalresearch.ca/PrintArticle.php?articleId=364 .

(36) “Rwanda’s Secret War: U.S.-Backed Destabilization of Central
Africa,” keith harmon snow, World War Four Report, 12 Dec. 2004:
www.WorldWar4Report.com .

(37) “Proxy Wars in Central Africa: Profits, Propaganda, and Luxury
Goods for the White World—Pacification, Rape, and Slavery for the
Blacks,” keith harmon snow, World War 3 Report, No. 100, 19 Jul. 2004:
http://ww3report.com/proxy.html .

(38) “Report on Events in Bukavu, South Kivu: May 26 to June 9, 2004,” Network of Women for the Defense of Rights and of Peace,



Image du jour: pétrole, consomation et production

12 11 2007

Pétrole



Film de la semaine: Where the US gets its info on Iran

3 11 2007

Trouvé et plagié de l’information clearinghouse:

 

Gunning for Iran

 

Exposed : Where The U.S. gets its
« intelligence » about Iran’s nuclear program

You must’ve heard the howls of protest from the International
Atomic Energy Agency after the release of a US House of
Representatives report on Iran’s nuclear program. The IAEA
branded the American report « outrageous and dishonest » for
asserting that Tehran’s nuclear plans were geared towards
weapons. This, of course, was just the latest flare-up in the
running debate over Iran’s supposed nuclear ambitions. So where
is Washington getting its information?

Try an Iranian opposition group known as the Mujahedin-e-Khalq –
MeK for short. Given the debacle over Saddam’s non-existent WMDs
in Iraq, you’d reckon there’d have to be a touch of caution
where Iranian exiles peddling nuclear secrets are concerned. But
as Bronwyn Adcock tells it, when the MeK speaks, Washington
hardliners listen.

Broadcast 11/04/06-

Dateline

Australia – Runtime 27 Minutes

Reporter – Bronwyn Adcock

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TRANSCRIPT Three weeks ago in
New York, journalists were summoned to this hotel for a
press conference. It has been organised by this man –
Alireza Jafarzadeh, an Iranian exile who regularly
reveals what he claims is inside information on Iran’s
nuclear program.
ALIREZA JAFARZADEH, MUJAHEDIN-E-KHALQ LOBBYIST: I
would like to share with you today the information I’ve
gotten from the very same sources that have proven
accurate in the past.
Today, Jafarzadeh announces he’s discovered an
apparently sinister new development.

ALIREZA JAFARZADEH: A very important aspect of the
Iran regime’s nuclear weapons program is actually laser
enrichment, and the information I’ve gotten from my
sources today suggests that Iran is heavily involved in
laser enrichment program.

As always, the information is incredibly detailed,
with maps, names and addresses. Since 2002, Jafarzadeh
and the Iranian opposition group he’s connected to, the
Mujahedin-e-Khalq, or MeK, have made nearly 20
intelligence revelations, in press conferences from
Paris to New York, Washington and London.

ALIREZA JAFARZADEH: And they are scheduled to be
able to get the bomb by 2005.

The MeK revelations have had an extraordinary
impact, sparking inspections in Iran by the nuclear
watchdog, the International Atomic Energy Agency.
According to the MeK, Iran is building a nuclear bomb,
and the world should be very afraid.

ALIREZA JAFARZADEH: I think the world has to take
the Iranian regime’s threat very, very seriously. These
ayatollahs believe in what they say, believe that they
can eliminate Israel off the map, they can eliminate the
superpowers.

According to this Iranian opposition group, there
is only one solution.

ALIREZA JAFARZADEH: You need to slay the dragon.
This is the solution. You need to slay the dragon, which
means regime change.

The MeK is playing a key role in what’s shaping up
as one of the critical contests of our time – the
stand-off between the US and Iran, played out here at
the United Nations General Assembly two weeks ago.

PRESIDENT GEORGE BUSH AT UN: Iran must abandon its
nuclear weapons ambitions.

AHMADINEJAD, IRAN PRESIDENT AT UN, (Translation): All
our nuclear activities are transparent and peaceful and
fully overseen by the IAEA

CROWD: Down with terrorist! Ahmadinejad terrorist!
Down with terrorist!

Outside the United Nations that day Alireza
Jafarzadeh and the Mujahedin-e-Khalq, are again trying
to get their opinion heard.

ALIREZA JAFARZADEH: Obtaining the bomb, the
nuclear bomb would unquestionably give Tehran the upper
hand in the region.

And some powerful forces in the West are
listening. The MeK’s main backer in Washington is a
newly formed think tank called the Iran Policy
Committee, headed by a former Reagan White House
official, Professor Raymond Tanter.

PROFESSOR RAYMOND TANTER, IRAN POLICY COMMITTEE:
The regime change clock has to start. Right now, the
regime change clock is not even ticking.

In the Iran Policy Committee, Professor Tanter has
created a powerful grouping of former CIA, Pentagon and
White House officials. At forums like this briefing on
Capitol Hill, the group is trying to convince the
American Government that the MeK can help them achieve
the goal of regime change.

PROFESSOR RAYMOND TANTER: We didn’t choose the
Mujahedin-e-Khalq. The data hit us between the eyes. The
analysis passes what I call ‘the interocular test’ – it
hits you right between the eyes. I invented that phrase.

CROWD (Translation): Ahmadinejad terrorist!
Ahmadinejad terrorist! Down with the terrorist!

But for some, the sight of exile groups bearing
gifts of intelligence for the West just brings back bad
memories.

PROFESSOR GARY SICK, COLOMBIA UNIVERSITY: In the
past, on Iraq, we were fed a lot of false information to
try to get our attention and to get us to do what we
did. We bought it, and I have a very hard time
understanding how anybody can maintain a straight face
and say, « Again, » we should do the same thing all over
again.

Professor Gary Sick has served on the National
Security Council under three presidents. He was the
principle White House aide for Iran during the Iranian
revolution and hostage crisis, and has followed the
country closely ever since. He’s extremely sceptical
about the MeK.

PROFESSOR GARY SICK: When people get enthusiastic
about this, I just have to look at the history of the
organisation, the way it’s behaved, the way it’s done
all of the things that it’s done, and I simply can’t see
it, I really can’t see it. I find it very difficult to
explain why people would get so enthusiastic about this
group.

The MeK does have an extraordinary history. A
militant left-wing movement, it participated in the 1979
Iranian revolution that overthrew the Shah. But
afterwards, when the ayatollahs took power, the MeK
began fighting the new regime.

It carried out bombings that killed senior Islamic
leaders, and many of its members were executed.

In the 1980s it moved its military base to Saddam
Hussein’s Iraq. From here at Camp Ashraf it launched
attacks across the border, and successfully carried out
assassinations and bombings within Iran. The MeK’s
military heyday has long since passed. Less than 3,000
fighters remain in a camp now guarded by Americans.
What’s more, the group’s often violent past has left it
officially listed as a terrorist organisation in the
United States, the European Union and Australia.

The real action for the MeK now is in the West, where a
bevy of lobbyists is operating, including Ali Safavi
here in London. Safavi has devoted most of his adult
life to the MeK struggle. Now he’s working to get the
group taken off the terrorist list. His office located
around the corner from parliament.

ALI SAFAVI, NATIONAL COUNCIL OF RESISTANCE OF
IRAN: And obviously the office is very close so that it
would be more convenient, both for us and for them.

Being listed as a terrorist organisation stands
between the MeK and real political credibility. Safavi
claims the group was only put on the list by governments
trying to win favour with Iran.

ALI SAFAVI: It has nothing to do with the nature,
with the conduct, or the activities of the Mujahedin. It
is basically a bargaining chip.

Ali Safavi is trying to convince the West of the
apparently impressive democratic credentials of the MeK
and its political wing, the NCRI.

ALI SAFAVI: The NCRI basically advocates a
secular, democratic form of government, a government
that is based on the separation of church and the state
or mosque and state, if you will.

Leading the concerted charm offensive is the
group’s leader, Maryam Rajavi, who’s based in Paris.
She’s offering up an enticing proposition to the West.

MARYAM RAJAVI, (Translation): Today I’ve come to
tell you that the international community doesn’t have
to choose between mullahs with an atomic bomb and war. A
third way exists. A democratic change by the Iranian
people and organised resistance.

Maryam Rajavi says if the MeK is just taken off
the terrorist list, it will be a sign for the people of
Iran to rise up and overthrow their government. It’s
this proposition that’s winning support with the Iran
Policy Committee in Washington and in parliaments around
the West.

Here at the European Parliament, British Conservative MP
Brian Binley tells a group of MeK supporters that the
majority of the House of Commons and 130 members in the
House of Lords are behind the group.

BRIAN BINLEY, BRITISH CONSERVATIVE MP: Because
they are the antithesis of the dictatorial
fundamentalists that rule in modern-day Iran today, and,
indeed, the very antithesis of a regime that I believe
poses the greatest threat to global security that we
face as a global people.

Binlay was converted to the cause after being
approached by an MeK supporter in the halls of
Parliament.

BRIAN BINLEY: I met with a gentleman called
Nasser, who is a supporter of the National Council, and
we talked. And he works in and around the House, as a
lobbyist, I suppose you would say. And we talked, and I
liked what he had to say, and, more importantly, what he
had to say seemed credible in the way that I’ve just
explained.

PROFESSOR GARY SICK: These are people who really
believe that Iran…the regime should be changed, that
this regime of mullahs should be done away with. And you
look around, and you don’t see any other place where you
can put a lever. And I must say for the Mujahedin, to
give them full credit, they are very good at their
propaganda.

According to Gary Sick, the MeK’s origins at the
time of the revolution were anything but democratic.

PROFESSOR GARY SICK: There, too, they weren’t
talking about democracy, they were talking about power,
and who took over. And there was certainly no sign from
where I sat in the White House that these people were in
any way trying to bring democracy to Iran. They were
trying to get rid of the group that had taken over and
install themselves in power. And I think that pretty
well describes what they’ve been doing ever since.

Massoud Khodabeanedeh says that the MeK is not
only undemocratic but that internally, it operates like
a cult. Now living in the United Kingdom, Khodabeanedeh
was a high-level member for more than 15 years.

MASSOUD KHODABEANEDEH, FORMER MEK MEMBER: They
have a charismatic leader, they use psychological
methods to convince people and keep people. Their wealth
is always serving the leader, not the people. They try
to get the money out of the people and keep it. They cut
people from their past, their family. They are very
restrictive in that way. There is Maryam and Massoud and
me, as his bodyguard.

Khodabeanedeh worked as security for the MeK’s
leadership in Iraq but left after becoming disenchanted.
He is now one of the most outspoken critics of the
organisation.

MASSOUD KHODABEANEDEH: Later on it came to these
sessions of self-confession, which again, is a cult…
every cult has got it – which you have to come, and
every day come to the meeting, explain what you have
been thinking about, or what even you have been dreaming
about, and even if you don’t have, they will hint that
you have to lie, you have to make up something. So the
collective pressure would be on you and they purify you.

REPORTER: So all women wore headscarves?

ANNE: Yeah. It was a part of the uniform. It was
actually the uniform.

Massoud Khodabanedeh’s wife, Anne, was also a
member for seven years, inspired to join by an Iranian
boyfriend and an interest in Islam.

ANNE: I became full-time in 1990. After going on
hunger strike for two weeks, I was on a real high and I
devoted myself to them. And that devotion was
encouraged, and I was told at some point fairly early on
that all you have to do is choose your leader and follow
that leader. And you don’t have to make any decisions.
And that leader, of course, was Maryam Rajavi.

Both Anne and Massoud say that in order to
encourage devotion to the leadership family
relationships were discouraged.

ANNE: When it actually comes to being a liberating
movement for women, I would say just the opposite
pertains, that they forced women to separate from their
children, forced women to divorce their spouse, they
forced them to give up any thought of having a normal
family life and family relationship. Even relationships
with their siblings in the same organisation are, well,
banned really. You might meet them but you can’t be a
sibling, you can’t show more closeness to them you would
show to Maryam Rajavi.

The MeK leadership totally rejects these
allegations and accuses Massoud Khodabanedeh of being on
the payroll of Iranian intelligence. A charge he in turn
denies. An even more serious allegation, though,
concerns the group’s relationship with Saddam Hussein
during its 15 years in Iraq. This recently revealed
footage shows Massoud Rajavi, the husband of Maryam and
co-leader of the MeK, with the former Iraqi dictator.

ALI SAFAVI: The Mujahedin were forced to relocate
in Iraq, and in the years they were in Iraq, from 1986
onwards, they were completely independent of their host,
both in political terms, in ideological terms, in
organisational terms and in military terms.

REPORTER: So there was no collaboration between
the Mujahedin and Saddam?

ALI SAFAVI: Absolutely not.

However, many sources, including the US State
Department dispute this, saying Iraq supplied the MeK
with weapons and received military assistance from the
Iranian exiles. Former member Massoud Khodabanedeh says
that after the first Gulf War in 1991 Saddam’s security
chief, Taha Yassin Ramadan, asked the MeK to help
suppress the Kurds.

MASSOUD KHODABEANEDEH: The way that it was done, I
remember that in the meetings with Taha Yassin Ramadan,
who was in favour of Mujahedin, and who very much
praised the Mujahedin for their loyalty. He divided the
forces because he didn’t have much forces after the war
in ’91, so he had only enough to suppress the uprising
in the south, so he left the north in hands of Rajavi.

Massoud says he saw first-hand a Kurdish village
that had been destroyed by the Mujahedin.

REPORTER: What happened to the village?

MASSOUD KHODABEANEDEH: It was just flattened down,
the whole village. Villages in Iraq are small villages,
and with say 20 tanks, you can see what damage can be
done. But it was deliberately flattened.

REPORTER: And this was done by the Mujahedin?

MASSOUD KHODABEANEDEH: By the Mujahedin. They were
there when I was passing the tanks and victoriously
celebrating.

Massoud also says that during his time with the
MeK its members were fed a diet of anti-imperialist and
anti-American propaganda. He believes now they’re trying
to reinvent themselves for a new, Western benefactor.

MASSOUD KHODABEANEDEH: Especially when they went
to Iraq, they didn’t see that one day Saddam would fall
so they have openly been anti-Western all the years that
they were there relying on Saddam. Any democratic face
that they put is a false face.

REPORTER: Why do you think they are putting on
this false face now?

MASSOUD KHODABEANEDEH: There is no other choice.
After Saddam falls, there is no other choice.

The MeK denies this aspect of its past. It says
that anyone making such allegations is being either
directly or indirectly influenced by Iranian
intelligence.

ALI SAFAVI: It is far more than a bit of a
propaganda campaign. In fact the Iranian regime has
spent hundreds of millions of dollars engaging in
propaganda.

In Washington, the MeK’s main American backers
also reject any criticism.

PROFESSOR RAYMOND TANTER: We are familiar with all
the allegations and we have looked at all these
allegations and we have found them to be baseless. And
we’re smart, we’re not idiots. I’m a professor at the
University of Michigan and Georgetown University and I
think I can tell whether a person is saying something to
dupe me. And Human Rights Watch and various others who
say the MeK and NCRI are changing their face in order to
appeal to groups like the Iran Policy Committee haven’t
done their research.

While the MeK and their supporters say they’ve
nothing in its history to be ashamed of, experts say
that’s not how it’s viewed in its homeland.

PROFESSOR GARY SICK: They are certainly despised,
there’s no two ways about that. They are seen as
turncoats, they are seen as traitors, people who joined
Iran’s enemies to try to overthrow the government.

For a group claiming it can make the Iranian
population rise up and overthrow the government, this
apparent lack of internal legitimacy is a major problem.

REPORTER: How much support do you have in Iran, in
numbers?

ALI SAFAVI: Well, you know that our movement from
day one has called for free elections under UN
supervision. I think if such an election were held,
without question… our movement would get most of the
votes.

DOHKI FASSIHIAN: The claim that the MeK would
actually win any support or win any elections inside
Iran is really preposterous.

Dokhi Fassihian is the former executive director
of the National Iranian American Council, a non-partisan
group. She spent much of the 1990s in Iran and knows the
political scene well.

DOHKI FASSIHIAN: In fact they are hated and
detested in Iran because of their role in siding with
the Iraqis in the very, very long and bloody Iran-Iraq
war. And so, I would say that even more so than Iranian
Americans, Iranians inside Iran really do hate the MeK
and really don’t understand why some governments and
some officials abroad can support such an undemocratic
group and such a violent group.

Political credentials aside, the strongest claim
the MeK has on Western attention is its intelligence on
Iran’s nuclear program.

REPORTER: How good are your sources, your
intelligence from Iran?

ALIREZA JAFARZADEH: Well, the intelligence is the
best that exists anywhere. The best track record in
terms of intelligence regarding Iran comes from the
sources of the Mujahedin-e-Khalq and the NCRI. It wasn’t
the intelligence community of the US, or Britain, or
other Western countries that discovered Natanz.

The MeK’s biggest claim to fame has been its
revelation in 2002 that Iran had a secret nuclear site
at a place called Natanz. After the announcement, the
International Atomic Energy Agency confronted Iran and
Iran opened the site for inspection.

DAVID ALBRIGHT, INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND
INTERNATIONAL SECURITY: So I think the Iranian
opposition group, what they did, their real contribution
was to start a chain of events where Iran had to admit
that it had its secret gas centrifuge program and other
secret nuclear programs, and help get the IAEA into Iran
to start uncovering a whole set of misleading statements
or hidden facilities in Iran. This building was sized to
hold 1,000 centrifuges, but could actually hold more.

David Albright is a physicist and president of the
Institute for Science and International Security in
Washington DC. He’s an expert on secret nuclear weapons
programs throughout the world. While he credits the MeK
with bringing Natanz to the world’s attention, the site
was not in breech of the Non-Proliferation treaty.
Albright also says later revelations have not proven as
useful.

DAVID ALBRIGHT: Since then, their record has been
a lot more mixed and a lot of revelations about things
going on, related to making nuclear weapons. IAEA went
to one place and found nothing. There was some equipment
that was imported, they said it was related to nuclear
weapons. It turned out on analysis it wasn’t even
suitable for use on a nuclear weapons program. So I
think that you have to read beyond the detail and try to
make sense out of it, and often it doesn’t make any, or
it’s just speculation.

Dateline also understands that the IAEA has
examined much of the intelligence provided by the MeK
and its political wing, the NCRI, and while it agrees
several early claims were on target, the rest have been
unreliable.

REPORTER: All their revelations paint a picture of
Iran having an incredibly advanced nuclear weapons
program. Would you agree with that assessment?

DAVID ALBRIGHT: It’s relative to what? I mean,
compared to Iraq, which had nothing, yeah, it’s quite
advanced. Are they close to building a bomb? Most
assessments, including our own, are that no, they are
not.

PROFESSOR RAYMOND TANTER: No-one knows whether the
revelations are true so how can one make a statement
that the NCRI-MeK revelations are off? Intelligence
people say this, but they don’t back it up. Because
journalists don’t do a good job in querying them. « What
is your evidence? » « Oh, I can’t say. » Hello, that’s not
right.

REPORTER: But by the same token, if the NCRI holds
a press conference saying, « Look we’ve got these
documents, we know this information, » and there’s
nothing else to back it up, how can you be sure that’s
true?

PROFESSOR RAYMOND TANTER: Look, intelligence is an
art. What you need is to use the NCRI-MeK allegations as
lead information, which you compare with info you
acquire independently.

REPORTER: But if revelations are being made, and
they’re not proven, and they’re put out there in the
media and put out there as a case for regime change, and
they’re not actually substantiated, isn’t that alarmist?

PROFESSOR RAYMOND TANTER: How do you prove
revelations with a totalitarian Islamist fascist regime?

The MeK knows that hardliners in Washington are
desperate for any information that will confirm their
suspicions of Iran.

PROFESSOR GARY SICK: So if the MeK is trying to
get credibility as a group that the US should cooperate
with in trying to overthrow the regime, focusing on the
nuclear side is an absolutely logical place for them to
focus, so I don’t blame them for doing that. I think
that’s an area that is going to attract attention, it’s
going to get them a following, and it will attract the
attention of people in Washington.

According to former member Massoud Khodabanedeh,
the MeK is just trying to stay alive.

MASSOUD KHODABEANEDEH: They want to survive. They
are saying, « Take us off. » The end game is « Take us off
the list of terrorism and use us. »

And in a clear convergence of interests, Professor
Tanter from the Iran Policy Committee is happy to help.

PROFESSOR RAYMOND TANTER: I am not a lobbyist for
the MeK and the NCRI, I’m a lobbyist for America, which
is different. You keep asking me questions which imply
that I am trying to push the MeK on to people.

REPORTER: But you are promoting their cause,
you’re trying to get them off…

PROFESSOR RAYMOND TANTER: I am not promoting their
cause, I am promoting American interests. There is a
difference.

REPORTER: You’re not suggesting they are
necessarily a good replacement government, you are
saying rather they are a good tool for Western
interests?

PROFESSOR RAYMOND TANTER: That’s what you asked
me, they are a tool for Western interests, yes. They are
accused of being a tool of Western interests by the
regime. It’s true!

REPORTER: And they are a tool for Western
interests?

PROFESSOR RAYMOND TANTER: Yes! They want to be a
part of the West.

 

 

(In accordance with Title 17
U.S.C. Section 107, this material is distributed without profit
to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the
included information for research and educational purposes.
Information Clearing House has no affiliation whatsoever with
the originator of this article nor is Information Clearing House
endorsed or sponsored by the originator.)



Film de la semaine: Echelon

13 10 2007

Voici un documentaire à propos du réseau Echelon:
[kml_flashembed movie= »http://www.dailymotion.com/swf/66dERGM8xmzAa3bzS » width= »510″ height= »403″ wmode= »transparent » /]



La BBC partenaire des services secrets anglo-saxons?

10 10 2007

Il semblerait que la BBC collabore intensivement avec les services secrets anglais et étasuniens (et surement avec tout les pays echelon: Japon, Aotearoa, Autralie, Canada) pour la collecte de données de par sa branche appelée BBC Monitoring. BBC Monitoring fut créée en 1939 pour renseigner le gouvernement britannique sur ce qui se disait dans les médias étrangers. En 1946 BBC Monitoring signe une attente avec Open Source Center (anciennement le Foreign Broadcast Information Service), la branche de la CIA qui récolte les informations publiques et librement disponibles et entre autre la branche de la CIA qui surveille les blogues (en passant, ce blogue a soi jamais reçu de visite du Open Source Center, soit l’Open Source Center cache son identité). L’entente stipule que BBC Monitoring et l’Open Source Center mettent leur trouvailles en commun. En effet comme on peut le constater en visitant https://www.opensource.gov/login/RegistrationAffiliation.jsp ou sur l’image ce dessous (sur laquelle vous pouvez cliquez pour l’agrandir), l’information collecté et cataloguée par la CIA est librement disponible aux employé(e)s de BBC Monitor.

Notons que la BBC est la seule organisation à part les différents niveaux du gouvernement étasunien qui a automatiquement accès à la base de donnée, le site internet avise toute autre personne de déguerpir de ce site au plus vite: «This is a U.S. Government computer system. You have reached a United States Government computer system. Unauthorized access is prohibited by U.S. Public Law 99-474 (the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986) and can result in administrative, disciplinary, and/or criminal proceedings. If you are not an authorized user, exit this system immediately. Use of this system constitutes consent to monitoring at all times.» .

La BBC informe donc les services secrets et est informée de manière privilégiée par les différents services secrets. Serait-ce de cette façon que la BBC a su à l’avance que la tour numéro 7 du World Trade Center allait s’effronder et de diffuser cette information 30 minutes avant les faits comme le montre le vidéo ci-bas?

[kml_flashembed movie="http://www.youtube.com/v/6mxFRigYD3s" width="425" height="350" wmode="transparent" /]

Mais de façon plus inquiétante, ce mécanisme de diffusion privilégiée à la BBC pourait-il être utilisé pour faire des Psyops ou de la propagande à travers un média généralement réputé comme étant crédible?

Sinon, fait intéressant, BBC Monitoring recrute et elle place surtout ses annonces les Lundi dans le Guardian. Apparement les lectrices et lecteurs du Guardian seraient de meilleur(e)s espions, pas exactement la même caractérisation qu’avait fait le feuilleton satirique politique «Yes, Minister» qui caractérisa plutôt ces derniers comme croyant qu’elles et ils devraient diriger le Royaume-Uni:

«

Jim Hacker: Don’t tell me about the press. I know exactly who reads the papers:

  • The Daily Mirror is read by people who think they run the country;
  • The Guardian is read by people who think they ought to run the country;
  • The Times is read by people who actually do run the country;
  • The Daily Mail is read by the wives of the people who run the country;
  • The Financial Times is read by people who own the country;
  • The Morning Star is read by people who think the country ought to be run by another country;
  • And the Daily Telegraph is read by people who think it is.
Sir Humphrey: Prime Minister, what about the people who read the Sun?
Bernard Woolley: Sun readers don’t care who runs the country, as long as she’s got big tits.

»

Pour divaguer encore plus loins du sujet original, ce dialogue a été tenu dans une émission de 1986, cinq ans après l’achat du Times par Rupert Murdoch et sa compagnie News Corp. (propriétaire entres beaucoup d’autres de Fox News et plus récemment du Wall Street Journal), donc si cette affirmation est relativement vraie, c’est quand même légèrement inquiétant que Murdoch contrôle (la première chose qu’il fit fut de changer l’éditeur en chef du Times) une des principale source d’information des dirigeants de Grande-Bretagne.

Mais pour revenir à BBC Monitoring, j’ai contacté BBC Monitoring pour en savoir plus et il semble que n’importe qui peu avoir accès à leur données en autant de payer le prix: 5000 livres anglaises (environ 10 000 dollars canadiens) par année pour avoir un accès à tout, sinon le forfait le moins cher, pour avoir qu’un seul pays, est de 600 livres par année. Vous pouvez voir toute les modalités et les prix ici. Par ailleurs on m’a aussi envoyé des exemples de l’information reçue que vous pouvez regarder ici: l’info pour le proche et moyen orient et l’info pour l’afrique. Notez que l’information semble quand même considérablement meilleure que ce que l’on trouve dans un journal normal. Par exemple dans les deux fichiers qui m’ont été envoyés on apprends entres autres que le PKK (Parti travailleur kurde) est super infiltrer par l’Europe et les ÉU et que ces deux puissances se batte pour le contrôle du PKK!? Ou bien les dernière nouvelles sur l’oléoduc irano-pakistano-indien.

ADDENDUM (10/10/2007):

«Israël doit être rayé de la carte» , on a tous entendu cette citation attribuée à Ahmadinejad. Comme vous le savez peut-être, ce n’est pas ce que Ahmadinejad a dit. La réalité est qu’il citait l’ayatollah Khomeiny qui disait «Le régime sioniste en poste en Israël doit être effacé des pages de l’histoire». La citation déformée «Israël doit être rayé de la carte» est apparu au public la première fois de par l’agence de presse Reuters qui disait citer l’agence de presse iranienne IRNA en octobre 2005 et a été repris de là par la majorité des autres conglomérats médiatiques par la suite. Mais Reuters a-t-elle même lu les dépêches de l’IRNA en parsi est fait cette traduction déformée, ou a telle utilisé les services des BBC Monitoring qui traduit régulièrement les articles de l’IRNA? La seule façon de le savoir c’est d’avoir accès aux archives de BBC Monitoring (ce qui coûte un peu trop chère pour moi) et de vérifier si autour du 26 octobre 2005 BBC Monitoring a traduit un article de l’IRNA en utilisant «Israël doit être rayé de la carte». Et si Reuters a obtenu la traduction de BBC Monitoring, BBC Monitoring a-t-elle produit cette intoxication médiatique au compte de la CIA?



Film de la semaine: The Yes Men

6 10 2007

Pour le film de la semaine cette semaine j’aimerais vous présenter les Yes Men et leur film. Pour résumer un peu leur histoire, ce sont des étasuniens qui avaient un site internet contre l’OMC, gatt.org, comme d’adresse du site ressemblait à l’adresse du vrai site de l’OMC ils recevaient des invitations pour venir parler à des conférences sur le libre-échange et autres sujets connexes. Ils sont donc aller donner des allocutions super sarcastiques sur le capitalisme sauvage et contre toutes leur attentes personne ne se rendait compte qu’ils se moquaient d’eux et leurs présentations étaient prises très au sérieux. Ils ont donc continuer à se déguiser en capitalistes sauvages pour tenter de dévoiler réels buts et intentions des autres capitalistes. Dans leur dernière action en date ils sont aller à la grande conférence de l’industrie pétrolière à Calgary en se faisant passer pour des représentants d’Exxon qui dévoilaient leur plan pour l’avenir: à cause la pollution et des GEZ il y aura des désastres naturels qui rendront impossible l’exploitation pétrolière donc la solution, comme il y aura plusieurs morts à cause des conditions extrêmes, sera de transformer le corps des morts en produits pétroliers. Ils ne furent découvert qu’à la fin de la présentation lorsqu’il passèrent des chandelles à toute l’assistance soi-disant faite à partir du corps d’un consierge de Exxon qui est mort d’avoir été exposé à des produits toxiques lors d’un accident chez Exxon.

Avant le film en question, voici deux petits vidéos pour vous mettre l’eau à bouche. Premièrement un vidéo où ils se font interviewer en tant que représentants de Dow Chemica à la BBC. Chose intéressante à noter est que la BBC n’a pas réalisé l’erreur avant que des vrais représentant de Dow Chemical l’appellent pour lui signaler l’erreur. Cela laisse vraiment planer le doute sur la qualité des informations que nous recevons tous les jours par le biais des grands médias commerciale qui il semblerait, ne prennent pas souvent le temps de vérifier leur source afin de s’assurer le scoop.

[kml_flashembed movie="http://www.youtube.com/v/SlUQ2sUti8o" width="425" height="350" wmode="transparent" /]

Quant au deuxième petit vidéo, les Yes Men se sont rendu compte récemment que les politiciens français ne pouvait résister de passer à la télé étasunienne et ils sont passer pour des chaînes de télévisions ultra-conservatrices étasuniennes et interview des politiciens français. Voici un tel vidéo, une entrevue avec Balkany, le mari de la maîtresse de Sarkozy:

[kml_flashembed movie="http://www.dailymotion.com/swf/4eLHrObBwOmZmbyKc" width="425" height="335" wmode="transparent" /]

Et finalement, voici le film en question en anglais sous-titré français:

[kml_flashembed movie="http://video.google.com/googleplayer.swf?docid=5112560810751719515" width="520" height="406" wmode="transparent" /]

ADDENDUM:

Voici un graphique du cours de l’action de Dow Chemical autour du 3 décembre 2004, date à laquelle les Yes Men passèrent à la BBC. Il semble que l’action a prit tout un coup seulement quelques jours après, après le démenti officiel. On dirait que le démenti officiel était plus dommageable à l’action que la déclaration des Yes Men.



Image du jour

18 09 2007

Le positionnement idéologique des personnalités politiques internationales:

Vous pouvez faire «le test» qui vous situe sur cette grille ici: http://politicalcompass.org/test 



Le Canada s’oppose à la « Déclaration des droits des peuples autochtones »

15 09 2007

Repris du site de l’ONF:

Le Canada s’oppose à la « Déclaration des droits des peuples autochtones »

Le 7 septembre dernier, à Montréal, Femmes Autochtones du Québec (FAQ) organisait une manifestation pour dénoncer la position du Canada dans le dossier de l’adoption de la « Déclaration des Nations Unies sur les droits des peuples autochtones ».

Vidéo: Le Canada s’oppose à la « Déclaration des droits des peuples autochtones »; réalisation Santiago Bertolino, durée: 8min.52

 

En effet, les États Membres de l’ONU seront appelés, le 13 septembre,
à adopter par consensus cette déclaration reconnaissant le droit à l’autodétermination des peuples autochtones qui se négocie depuis 22 ans. Mais voilà que depuis l’entrée des conservateurs au pouvoir en janvier 2006, le Canada est devenu un farouche opposant à cette déclaration. Dernièrement, à quelques semaines du vote final pour l’adoption de la déclaration, le Canada, appuyé par l’Australie, la Nouvelle-Zélande, la Russie, la Colombie, la Guyane et le Surinam, a demandé de reprendre les négociations, manoeuvre qui a pour but de paralyser l’adoption de la déclaration.Pour savoir plus sur le sujet voici quelques liens:


Cybersolidaire: Pour la reconnaissance et la protection des droits des peuples autochtonesLe Devoir: Autochtones: le Canada fait bande à part

Le Devoir: Gain autochtone malgré le Canada

ONU: CONFÉRENCE DE PRESSE SUR LE PROJET DE DÉCLARATION DES NATIONS UNIES SUR LES DROITS DES PEUPLES AUTOCHTONES

Ministère des Affaires Indiennes et du Nord (communiqué): Position du Canada : Projet de déclaration des Nations Unies sur les droits des peuples autochtones

Amnisitie Internationale (communiqué): Déclaration des droits des peuples autochtones : Il est grand temps que le Canada se rallie



La Russie se réaffirme comme puissance mondiale

10 09 2007

http://www.innovationsinnewspapers.com/uploaded_images/Kremlin-784933.jpgLa Russie a été très active ces derniers temps en ce qui concerne la reprise de son influence internationale perdue en 1989. Deux choses en particulier ont retenu mon attention:

  • La Russie prend sa place dans au sein du système financier international. Traditionnellement, l’europe et sûretout les ÉU contrôlent la finance internationale de façon incontesté. Une des places où cela est assez évident est la nomination des présidents des institutions financières internationales. Depuis toujours, le président de la Banque Mondiale est un étasunien choisi par Washington et le président du FMI un européen choisi par l’Europe. Car même si tous les pays membres (tous les pays du monde pratiquement) votent sur ces nominations, dû à leur contributions financières plus importantes aux réserves des institutions, les ÉU et l’Europe contrôlent assez de votes (les ÉU ont 17% des votes et les pays européens 33% pour un total de presque 50%) pour (presque) pouvoir, en collusion l’un avec l’autre, décider unilatéralements de tous ce qui se fait à ces deux institutions. L’Europe a décidé en fin juillet dernier qu’elle proposerait Dominique Strauss-Kahn, politicien français du Parti socialist. Donc dans le cours normal des chose Strauss-Kahn serait garanti d’obtenir la position convoitée grâce à l’appuie étasunien. Mais voici que la Russie (2.70% des votes) vient jetter des bâtons dans les roues de l’entente étasuno-européenne: elle propose son propre candidat, l’ancien Premier ministre tchèque Josef Tošovský. Évidemment la Russie n’a aucune chance d’imposer son candidat toute seule, mais notons que ceci surevient au moment où les pays africains viennent de se faire refuser pas l’Europe et les ÉU la possibilité d’augmenter le nombre de voix qu’ils détiennent au FMI; certains pays en développement tels la Chine, la Corée du Sud et la Turquie ont demandé d’augmenter leur pourcentage de voix aux dépends de l’Europe et obtenu l’appui étasunien mais évidemment l’Europe bloque toujours le changement (un tel changement devrait être approuvé avec 85% des voix). Il est donc fort à parier que ces pays ne voterons pas pour le candidat européen. Par ailleurs, il y a une grande tension entre la Russie et les ÉU et les ÉU et l’Europe de l’ouest par rapport aux installations de bouclier antimissile étasuniens que les ÉU souhaitent mettre en place en Pologne et en République Tchèque, donc en proposant un tchèque, la Russie essaie de ramenner ces pays dans son camps, sûretout que si Strass-Kahn n’avait pas été là ce aurait été le polonais Marek Belka qui aurait été le candidat européen.

sources: FT Asia Times

  • Deuxièmement la Russie augmente considérablement sa présence en Asie du Sud et en Océanie de par ces accords et collaborations suivante:
    • Accord avec l’Australie pour importer 825 millions de dollars d’uranium par année.
    • Accord de collaboration pétrolière avec l’Indonésie dans ce pays.
    • Ventes d’armes considérables à l’Indonésie.

source: FT




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